腾讯分分彩代理

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科学美国人60秒:牛椋鸟是犀牛的瞭望眼

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中英对照 听力原文

Birds on Rhinos' Backs Help Them Avoid Poachers

Black rhinos have terrible eyesight. Even so, these giant African herbivores easily fend off hungry lions and hyenas.“Their basic body plan has proved to be good enough to survive on a savanna full of large predators, being very large, thick skinned, big rapier-like horns.”

腾讯分分彩代理Victoria University of Melbourne behavioral ecologist Roan Plotz. But those protective traits are no match for humans with guns. Today, the species is critically endangered largely due to poaching. But the rhinos may have an unlikely ally against poachers: the red-billed oxpecker. The chatty, sociable birds often hang out on the backs of rhinos, feasting on parasitic ticks.

腾讯分分彩代理“And actually, research has shown that the tick is the favorite diet of an oxpecker. And if they feed on ticks, that is a good thing.”The birds also get nutrients by picking at sores on the rhinos’ bodies. Plotz suspected that the rhinos put up with this indignity because the oxpeckers make loud alarm calls whenever they see humans approach—giving the rhinos an early warning to flee.

腾讯分分彩代理“And it's sort of a distinctive rattling, a bit hissing sort of sound.” (alarm call clip)To test whether the oxpeckers do in fact act as noisy lookouts, Plotz and his team implanted radio transmitters in the rhinos’ horns. This didn’t hurt the rhinos, and allowed the researchers to track the animals…

“And approach them undetected, when the oxpeckers were on the back and when the oxpeckers were not on their backs, to get an idea of if the birds do alert them, and if the rhinos do listen.”

腾讯分分彩代理The researchers found that rhinos without oxpeckers detected an approaching human only 23 percent of the time, at an average distance of 27 meters. But when oxpeckers were present, the birds alerted the rhinos 100 percent of the time. And they detected the human 61 meters away on average. And the more oxpeckers on the scene, the greater the detection distance—which means the earlier the warning.

“Which makes sense because the more eyes you have on your back, looking out for you, the more chance that they can pick up anything coming. What we think is going on, fundamentally, is that the rhino is eavesdropping on the oxpecker alarm call, there can be no doubt of that. There's a really strong anti-human benefit to listening to oxpecker alarm calls.”

The study is in the journal Current Biology, with oxpecker recording by Tiffany Plantan of the University of Miami.Plotz thinks the oxpeckers may have evolved their sentinel behavior because it protects their convenient food source. And the more lookouts the better, in what seems like a win-win for both species—the birds thrive and the rhinos survive.

Birds on Rhinos' Backs Help Them Avoid Poachers

牛椋鸟是犀牛的瞭望眼

Black rhinos have terrible eyesight. Even so, these giant African herbivores easily fend off hungry lions and hyenas.“Their basic body plan has proved to be good enough to survive on a savanna full of large predators, being very large, thick skinned, big rapier-like horns.”

黑犀牛的视力很差。尽管如此,这些巨大的非洲食草动物很容易就能抵御饥饿的狮子和鬣狗。“事实证明,它们的基本体型足以在充满大型食肉动物的热带草原上生存,这些动物体型很大,皮肤很厚,长着大而锋利的角。”

Victoria University of Melbourne behavioral ecologist Roan Plotz. But those protective traits are no match for humans with guns. Today, the species is critically endangered largely due to poaching. But the rhinos may have an unlikely ally against poachers: the red-billed oxpecker. The chatty, sociable birds often hang out on the backs of rhinos, feasting on parasitic ticks.

腾讯分分彩代理墨尔本维多利亚大学行为生态学家普罗茨说。但是这些保护性的特征并不能与人类的枪支相匹敌。如今,由于偷猎,该物种已濒临灭绝。但是,在对付偷猎者时,犀牛会有一个本不太可能的盟友:红嘴牛椋鸟。这种爱说话、好交际的鸟经常挂在犀牛背上,以寄生的蜱虫为食。

腾讯分分彩代理“And actually, research has shown that the tick is the favorite diet of an oxpecker. And if they feed on ticks, that is a good thing.”The birds also get nutrients by picking at sores on the rhinos’ bodies. Plotz suspected that the rhinos put up with this indignity because the oxpeckers make loud alarm calls whenever they see humans approach—giving the rhinos an early warning to flee.

事实上,研究表明蜱是牛椋鸟最喜欢的食物。如果它们以蜱虫为食,那是件好事。“鸟类还通过啃食犀牛身上的疮来获取营养。普罗茨怀疑,犀牛之所以能忍受这种侮辱,是因为无论何时,只要看到人类靠近,它们都会发出响亮的警报,给犀牛发出逃跑预警。

“And it's sort of a distinctive rattling, a bit hissing sort of sound.” (alarm call clip)To test whether the oxpeckers do in fact act as noisy lookouts, Plotz and his team implanted radio transmitters in the rhinos’ horns. This didn’t hurt the rhinos, and allowed the researchers to track the animals…

“这是一种独特的格格声,有点嘶嘶声。为了测试这些牛椋鸟是否真的充当了嘈杂的瞭望台,普罗茨和他的团队在犀牛角中植入了无线电发射器。这并没有伤害到犀牛,也让研究人员得以追踪这些动物……

“And approach them undetected, when the oxpeckers were on the back and when the oxpeckers were not on their backs, to get an idea of if the birds do alert them, and if the rhinos do listen.”

“当牛椋鸟在犀牛背后时,在没有被发现的情况下接近它们,来了解鸟类是否会提醒犀牛,而犀牛是否会倾听。”

腾讯分分彩代理The researchers found that rhinos without oxpeckers detected an approaching human only 23 percent of the time, at an average distance of 27 meters. But when oxpeckers were present, the birds alerted the rhinos 100 percent of the time. And they detected the human 61 meters away on average. And the more oxpeckers on the scene, the greater the detection distance—which means the earlier the warning.

研究人员发现,没有“牛椋鸟”的犀牛在平均27米的距离上发现人类接近的几率只有23%。但是当牛椋鸟出现时,这些鸟百分之百地提醒犀牛。它们在平均61米远的地方发现了人类。而且,现场的牛椋鸟越多,探测距离越远——这意味着预警越早。

“Which makes sense because the more eyes you have on your back, looking out for you, the more chance that they can pick up anything coming. What we think is going on, fundamentally, is that the rhino is eavesdropping on the oxpecker alarm call, there can be no doubt of that. There's a really strong anti-human benefit to listening to oxpecker alarm calls.”

“这是有道理的,因为背犀牛的背上上有越多的眼睛在盯着,就越有可能发现任何东西。”我们认为根本的原因是,犀牛在偷听牛椋鸟的报警电话,这是毫无疑问的。听牛椋鸟的叫声确实有很强的反人类益处。”

The study is in the journal Current Biology, with oxpecker recording by Tiffany Plantan of the University of Miami.Plotz thinks the oxpeckers may have evolved their sentinel behavior because it protects their convenient food source. And the more lookouts the better, in what seems like a win-win for both species—the birds thrive and the rhinos survive.

腾讯分分彩代理这项研究发表在《当代生物学》杂志上,还有迈阿密大学的Tiffany Plantan录制的牛椋鸟的叫声。普罗茨认为,牛椋鸟之所以进化出这种定点行为,可能是因为这种行为保护了它们便利的食物来源。瞭望台越多越好,这对两个物种来说似乎是双赢——鸟类繁荣,犀牛存活。

听力原文

Birds on Rhinos' Backs Help Them Avoid Poachers

腾讯分分彩代理Black rhinos have terrible eyesight. Even so, these giant African herbivores easily fend off hungry lions and hyenas.“Their basic body plan has proved to be good enough to survive on a savanna full of large predators, being very large, thick skinned, big rapier-like horns.”

Victoria University of Melbourne behavioral ecologist Roan Plotz. But those protective traits are no match for humans with guns. Today, the species is critically endangered largely due to poaching. But the rhinos may have an unlikely ally against poachers: the red-billed oxpecker. The chatty, sociable birds often hang out on the backs of rhinos, feasting on parasitic ticks.

“And actually, research has shown that the tick is the favorite diet of an oxpecker. And if they feed on ticks, that is a good thing.”The birds also get nutrients by picking at sores on the rhinos’ bodies. Plotz suspected that the rhinos put up with this indignity because the oxpeckers make loud alarm calls whenever they see humans approach—giving the rhinos an early warning to flee.

“And it's sort of a distinctive rattling, a bit hissing sort of sound.” (alarm call clip)To test whether the oxpeckers do in fact act as noisy lookouts, Plotz and his team implanted radio transmitters in the rhinos’ horns. This didn’t hurt the rhinos, and allowed the researchers to track the animals…

“And approach them undetected, when the oxpeckers were on the back and when the oxpeckers were not on their backs, to get an idea of if the birds do alert them, and if the rhinos do listen.”

腾讯分分彩代理The researchers found that rhinos without oxpeckers detected an approaching human only 23 percent of the time, at an average distance of 27 meters. But when oxpeckers were present, the birds alerted the rhinos 100 percent of the time. And they detected the human 61 meters away on average. And the more oxpeckers on the scene, the greater the detection distance—which means the earlier the warning.

腾讯分分彩代理“Which makes sense because the more eyes you have on your back, looking out for you, the more chance that they can pick up anything coming. What we think is going on, fundamentally, is that the rhino is eavesdropping on the oxpecker alarm call, there can be no doubt of that. There's a really strong anti-human benefit to listening to oxpecker alarm calls.”

腾讯分分彩代理The study is in the journal Current Biology, with oxpecker recording by Tiffany Plantan of the University of Miami.Plotz thinks the oxpeckers may have evolved their sentinel behavior because it protects their convenient food source. And the more lookouts the better, in what seems like a win-win for both species—the birds thrive and the rhinos survive.

参考译文

腾讯分分彩代理Birds on Rhinos' Backs Help Them Avoid Poachers

牛椋鸟是犀牛的瞭望眼

Black rhinos have terrible eyesight. Even so, these giant African herbivores easily fend off hungry lions and hyenas.“Their basic body plan has proved to be good enough to survive on a savanna full of large predators, being very large, thick skinned, big rapier-like horns.”

黑犀牛的视力很差。尽管如此,这些巨大的非洲食草动物很容易就能抵御饥饿的狮子和鬣狗。“事实证明,它们的基本体型足以在充满大型食肉动物的热带草原上生存,这些动物体型很大,皮肤很厚,长着大而锋利的角。”

Victoria University of Melbourne behavioral ecologist Roan Plotz. But those protective traits are no match for humans with guns. Today, the species is critically endangered largely due to poaching. But the rhinos may have an unlikely ally against poachers: the red-billed oxpecker. The chatty, sociable birds often hang out on the backs of rhinos, feasting on parasitic ticks.

腾讯分分彩代理墨尔本维多利亚大学行为生态学家普罗茨说。但是这些保护性的特征并不能与人类的枪支相匹敌。如今,由于偷猎,该物种已濒临灭绝。但是,在对付偷猎者时,犀牛会有一个本不太可能的盟友:红嘴牛椋鸟。这种爱说话、好交际的鸟经常挂在犀牛背上,以寄生的蜱虫为食。

腾讯分分彩代理“And actually, research has shown that the tick is the favorite diet of an oxpecker. And if they feed on ticks, that is a good thing.”The birds also get nutrients by picking at sores on the rhinos’ bodies. Plotz suspected that the rhinos put up with this indignity because the oxpeckers make loud alarm calls whenever they see humans approach—giving the rhinos an early warning to flee.

腾讯分分彩代理事实上,研究表明蜱是牛椋鸟最喜欢的食物。如果它们以蜱虫为食,那是件好事。“鸟类还通过啃食犀牛身上的疮来获取营养。普罗茨怀疑,犀牛之所以能忍受这种侮辱,是因为无论何时,只要看到人类靠近,它们都会发出响亮的警报,给犀牛发出逃跑预警。

“And it's sort of a distinctive rattling, a bit hissing sort of sound.” (alarm call clip)To test whether the oxpeckers do in fact act as noisy lookouts, Plotz and his team implanted radio transmitters in the rhinos’ horns. This didn’t hurt the rhinos, and allowed the researchers to track the animals…

“这是一种独特的格格声,有点嘶嘶声。为了测试这些牛椋鸟是否真的充当了嘈杂的瞭望台,普罗茨和他的团队在犀牛角中植入了无线电发射器。这并没有伤害到犀牛,也让研究人员得以追踪这些动物……

腾讯分分彩代理“And approach them undetected, when the oxpeckers were on the back and when the oxpeckers were not on their backs, to get an idea of if the birds do alert them, and if the rhinos do listen.”

“当牛椋鸟在犀牛背后时,在没有被发现的情况下接近它们,来了解鸟类是否会提醒犀牛,而犀牛是否会倾听。”

The researchers found that rhinos without oxpeckers detected an approaching human only 23 percent of the time, at an average distance of 27 meters. But when oxpeckers were present, the birds alerted the rhinos 100 percent of the time. And they detected the human 61 meters away on average. And the more oxpeckers on the scene, the greater the detection distance—which means the earlier the warning.

研究人员发现,没有“牛椋鸟”的犀牛在平均27米的距离上发现人类接近的几率只有23%。但是当牛椋鸟出现时,这些鸟百分之百地提醒犀牛。它们在平均61米远的地方发现了人类。而且,现场的牛椋鸟越多,探测距离越远——这意味着预警越早。

“Which makes sense because the more eyes you have on your back, looking out for you, the more chance that they can pick up anything coming. What we think is going on, fundamentally, is that the rhino is eavesdropping on the oxpecker alarm call, there can be no doubt of that. There's a really strong anti-human benefit to listening to oxpecker alarm calls.”

“这是有道理的,因为背犀牛的背上上有越多的眼睛在盯着,就越有可能发现任何东西。”我们认为根本的原因是,犀牛在偷听牛椋鸟的报警电话,这是毫无疑问的。听牛椋鸟的叫声确实有很强的反人类益处。”

The study is in the journal Current Biology, with oxpecker recording by Tiffany Plantan of the University of Miami.Plotz thinks the oxpeckers may have evolved their sentinel behavior because it protects their convenient food source. And the more lookouts the better, in what seems like a win-win for both species—the birds thrive and the rhinos survive.

腾讯分分彩代理这项研究发表在《当代生物学》杂志上,还有迈阿密大学的Tiffany Plantan录制的牛椋鸟的叫声。普罗茨认为,牛椋鸟之所以进化出这种定点行为,可能是因为这种行为保护了它们便利的食物来源。瞭望台越多越好,这对两个物种来说似乎是双赢——鸟类繁荣,犀牛存活。


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